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(...) Over the last five years, the author has undertaken research and gathered data on the national regulations of a number of EU countries regarding the use of institutionalised confrontation as an accepted method of determining the truth in criminal proceedings and/or as a technique used in crime-solving (criminalistics) where recommendations and actual practice were the object of interest. He sought answers to several questions: a) Does the institution exist in the particular country? b) If so, how is it regulated? (By law or by recommendation?) c) If there is a law, what are the name, number, source and text? d) Is face-to-face confrontation institutionalised in criminal proceedings and, if yes, with what attached recommendations? e) If it exists within criminal proceedings, at which stage is it used - during investigation or in the judicial phase? f) If confrontation exists, how effective is it? What are the views of law enforcement officers? Basically, the author looked for answers to the main theoretical questions by means of questionnaires, personal interviews with law enforcement bodies (judges, prosecutors, barristers, police officials) and by (international) legal analysis. 1. A review of various national regulations During this research carried out over the last 5 years, I gathered data from numerous EU countries’ national regulations regarding confrontation - as well as on their recommendations and practice concerning crime-investigation tactics. For the …
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